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Minerals and Gems
Minerals are solid, inorganic (not living) substances that are found in and on earth. Most are chemical compounds, which means they are made up of two or more elements. For example, the mineral sapphire is made up of aluminum and oxygen. A few minerals, such as gold, silver and copper, are made from a single element. Minerals are considered the building blocks of rocks. Rocks can be a combination of as many as six minerals.
Many minerals, such as gold and silver, are very valuable because they are beautiful and rare. Limestone, clay and quartz are other examples of minerals.
Gems are minerals or pearls that have been cut and polished. They are used as ornaments, such as jewelry. Precious stones are the most valuable gems. They include diamonds, rubies and emeralds
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It’s hard to imagine that the Sun has not always been the way it is today. Yet there was time, in the distant past, when the Sun did not exist.
More than 5 billion years ago, there was no Sun, no Earth, no solar system at all. There was, instead, just a huge, thin cloud of gas and dust slowly turning and drifting through space.
Gradually, the cloud became smaller. Because of its own gravity it pulled itself together. At the same time, it began to get hotter and denser.
By about 5 billion years ago, nearly all the cloud’s gas was packed into a big, fuzzy ball at the center of the cloud. Then a very important thing happened. Deep inside the ball, the temperature rose high enough for fusion to start. Hydrogen began to turn into helium, making light and heat. What had been a ball of gas became a star: the Sun.
But there was more to come. Not all of the gas had been used up in making the Sun. Some of it settled into a flat, pancake-shaped cloud that now circled the newborn star. Slowly, from this cloud, the planets, moons and other members of the Sun’s family formed.
What will happen to the Sun in the future? For billions of years, it will carry on “burning” hydrogen fuel in its core. Although the Sun uses up around 5 million tons of hydrogen every second, it still has enough left i its core to last for another 5 billion years or so.
When it finally does run out of fuel, though, something very odd will happen to the Sun. It will swell up to many times its present size and become what is known as a red giant.
In its old age, the Sun may shed a colorful nebula like this one
The outer layers of the Sun will grow to swallow up, in turn, the planets Mercury and Venus. They may even reach out as far as Earth. Then, the surface of our planet will be scorched, and its oceans boiled dry.
As a red giant, the Sun might be able to exist for a few more million years. During this time it will shed matter quite quickly. The solar wind will strengthen to a solar gale. Finally, the Sun may cast off most of its outer layers as a bright shell of gas called a planetary nebula.
All that will be left behind is a very hot, dense core. The Sun, in fact, will have become a white dwarf – a star no bigger than the Earth. Gradually, over many millions of years, even this small star will cool. The Sun will end its days quietly as a dimming ember in space.
Before this happens, human beings may have learned how to travel to other stars. We may be able to make our home on a planet around a friendlier star. But perhaps we will leave behind a robot probe to watch the final fate of our old neighborhood star.
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What is story telling?
As its core, story telling is the art of using language, voalization, and/or physical movement and gesture to reveal the element and images osf a story
to a specific, live audience. A centeral, unique aspect of story telling is its reliance on the audience to develop specific visual imagery and details to complete and co-create the story.
Educators have long known that the arts can contribute to students academic success and emotional well-beng. The ancient art of story telling is specially well-suited for student exploration. Story telling
is accesbile to all ages and abilities. It requires no special equipment beyond the imagination and the power of listening and speaking is needed to create artistic images.
As a learning tool, story telling can encourage students to explore their unique expressiveness and can heighten a student’s ability to communicate thoughtsand feelings an an articulate , lucid manner.
In our fast-paced, media- driven world, story tellind can be a nurturing way to remind children that spoken are powerful, that listening is important, and clear communication between people is an art.
3.Passing on wisdom
4.Passing on culture
6.Ability to sit down
7.Doing away with fear
8.Keeping childern usefully occupied
9. Setting a routine
TECHNIQUES OF STORY TELLING
Story are so many and have different ways to tell.And some of them we kanow as told by our grands parents.mothers
story contains 2 words in it. ‘Story’ and’Telling’ As the name suggest”telling” involves telling or narrating the story.
the emphasis is on the word telling. it is the verbal skill. thus telling has to be done verbally so that it is visually brought about in the mainds of the audience in your case little children.
Story telling is thus the live person-to-person oral and physical presentation of an audience.
It is two way process. your role as the teller role is to effectively communicate the images of a story. the teller role is to effectively and efficently communicate the images of the story.
athe teller provides no visual images. no stage set, abd generally, no costumes related to story characters or historic period. the listener’s role is to create these images based on the performer’s telling and on their own experiences and belief.
The completed story happens in the mind of each child who listens to the story and is unique and personal for each individual for it is his/her interpretation.
IT thus becomes your responsibility as the teller to tell the story in such way that it comes visually alive for the listner.
It is an interactive performance with direct interaction between the teller and audience.
An audience responds to the teller’s words and actions the teller uses this generally non-verbal feedback to immediately, spontaneously and improvisationally adjust the tones, wordingand pace of the story to better meet the needs of the audience.
Story telling is, by its nature,personal,interprwetive and uniquely human. story telling passes on the essence of who we are.
Stories are a prime vechile for assessing and interpreting events, experience and concepts from minor moments of daily life to the grand nature of the human conditions.
It is intrinsic and basic form of human communication. More than any otherform of communication. More than any other form of communication, the story telling of stories in an integral and essential part of the human experience. What are the tools available for story telling?
1. VOICE OR VOCALIZATION
The voice is the greatest assest, the greatest strength. In a story telling session we do not provide any light effects or any grand visualization. Other wise it does not remain a story but becomes a skit or a play.
voice modulation is the key to story telling.Following are few tips for this purpose:
Change the pitch
Change of speech
Vary the emphasis
Build up to the climax
The language should be which is understood by the listner.
Expressions should be according to the story what story demands.
4. Involvement and participation
5. Never read stright from the book
TIP’s FOR HOLDING CHILDREN’s ATTENTION
4.Anticipation through repetitive phrases
6.Senses of justice and fair play
8.Books with large colorful pictures
9.Let the child lead on
Characteristics for a story telling
Know your strengths
Follow your heart
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1. Our Spaceflight Begins
Imagine it’s the year 2030. From a spaceport near your home town, we’ve flown in a rocket-powered space plane hundreds of miles above the Earth. Now, inside an orbiting space station, we’re waiting for the most exciting part of our journey to begin – a space flight to the Moon!
Some Facts and Figures
We’ve tried to learn as much as we can about the world we’ll be visiting. The Moon is quite a bit smaller than the Earth. It’s only 2,160 miles (3,476 kilometers) in diameter; compared with Earth’s 7,928 miles (12,756 kilometers). If the Earth were the size of a basketball, the Moon would be no bigger than a baseball.
But even though it’s small, the Moon is special to us. It is the Earth’s only natural satellite – the only object, not made by humans, that orbits, or moves around, our planet. At a distance of 238,900 miles (384,400 kilometers), it’s also closer than the Sun or the planets. Because it’s so close, the Moon seems big and bright in our sky.
To get an idea of how close the Moon really is, imagine that the whole solar system has been shrunk down. In this small scale, the distance from the Earth to the Sun is only 100 feet (about 30 meters). Now, remember, compared with most things in space, even the Sun is quite close by. But on the same scale, do you know how far from the Earth the Moon would be? Just 3 inches! The Moon is easily our closest neighbor in space.
The Moon is not a friendly world, though. It has no liquid water and no air. In fact, it has no atmosphere of any kind. During the day, its surface is hot enough to fry an egg. At night, it is colder than the North Pole. We will be visitors to a world where there has never been any life and where everything is strange and new.
Soon our spaceship will be leaving. The captain welcomes us aboard and tells us that, traveling at several miles per second, it will take us less than a day to reach the Moon. By comparison, he says, the old Apollo craft took about four days to make the same journey.
We feel a steady, gentle push as the ship moves away from the space station and gradually gains speed. After about an hour, we reach cruising speed. Lunch is served, and then the captain announces today’s in-flight movie, The Exploration of the Moon. The cabin lights dim, the film starts to roll, and the sound track begins …
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Question: Amy and Judy sold 12 show tickets altogether. Amy sold 2 more tickets than Judy. How many tickets did each girl sell?
What do you need to find?
You need to know that 12 tickets were sold in all. You also need to know that Amy sold 2 more tickets than Judy.
How can you solve the problem?
You can guess and check to find two numbers with a sum of 12 and a difference of 2. If your first guess does not work, try two different numbers.
Amy = 8 tickets
Judy = 4 tickets
8 + 4 = 12
8 – 4 = 4 ( Amy sold 4 more tickets)
These numbers do not work!
Amy = 7 tickets
Judy = 5 tickets
7 + 5 = 12
7- 5 = 2 ( Amy sold 2 more tickets)
These numbers do work!
Amy sold 7 tickets and Judy sold 5 tickets.
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Question: Sam put 18 pencils in 3 equal groups. How many pencils are in each group?
What do you need to know?
You need to know that there are 18 pencils and they are divided into 3 equal groups
How can you solve the problem?
You can write a number sentence to solve the problem. Write a division sentence to divide the pencils in 3 equal groups.
18 Ã· 3 = 6
There are 6 pencils in each group.
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Astrology is the ancient science of interpreting the movements of the planets and their relationship to human destiny or human potential. It is used to calculate the timeliness of a particular course or action and offer the individual seeking knowledge a list of possibilities. The trick in is in understanding the various aspects involved and acting accordingly.
The earliest known astrological chart is Babylonian, dating from 409 BC. In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, the ancient Greeks developed the idea of the 12 signs of the zodiac. They saw a relationship between people’s personalities and their season of birth and thus identified 12 character types which they connected to the signs named for 12 constellations. Zodiac is Greek for “circle of animals”.
There are four elements of the Zodiac are as follows:
Fire Signs: Aries, Leo, Sagittarius. They represent the pure flame of spirit. Fire signs are restless, energetic, optimistic, and assertive.
Earth Signs: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn. They represent various phases of the physical body. Earth signs are practical, sensual, persevering and reserved.
Air Signs: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius. They represent the power of the mind. Air signs are objective, sociable, independent and mentally active.
Water Signs: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces. They represent various aspects of the emotional nature. Water signs are emotional, sensitive and intuitive
Zodiac Signs and Their Related Stones:
ARIES: Red Stones: initiative, ambition or creativity and spiritual adventuring.
TAURUS: Yellow or Pink Stones: Love, wisdom, persistence and perseverance.
GEMINI: Violet Stones: Dualites of life and death, joy and sorrow, health and sickness, plenty and poverty.
CANCER: Green Stones: The gateway to life; life and love.
LEO: Gold or Orange Stones: Activity inspired by wisdom; divinity, humility.
VIRGO: Purple Stones: Reason transforming to wisdom; knowledge and understanding.
LIBRA: Yellow Stones: Related to the mind; a turning point, balance, love, unity.
SCORPIO: Red, Clear Crimson Stones: Duality, transmutation, purification of animal nature.
SAGITTARIUS: Deep Blue Stones: High idealism and noble aspirations; spiritualized mind.
CAPRICORN: Black and White Stones: Crossing from darkness to light; conquest of the monster of self.
AQUARIUS: Clear Blue Stones: Communication and group work.
PISCES: Soft Blue and Indigo Stones: Loving selfless service equals victory.
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Barbie dolls have probably been on Christmas wish lists for several generations of girls. In fact Barbie has become a household name for many years. Who created the first concept of the Barbie doll?
The story started with the birth of Ruth Mosko in Denver Colarado in 1916. Ruth married Elliot Handler in 1938. Elliot Handler and his business partner Harold â€˜Matt\” Matson formed the company Mattel. The name was created by a combination of their names â€˜Matt-Ell\”. Mattel originally manufactured picture frames, but after making dolls furniture from scraps decided to focus on toy manufacturing for which Mattel is now famous.
Ruth Handler noticed that her young daughter Barbara was more interested in playing with adult dolls, than the baby dolls that were available at that time. While traveling in Europe she saw a German doll called â€˜Lilli\’ which she bought for her daughter. The original â€˜Lilli\’ doll was not a children\’s toy, but a joke style gift for men.
Mattel bought the marketing rights for â€˜Lilli\’. They changed the doll\’s name to Barbie, named after Ruth\’s daughter Barbara. Barbie was first released for sale in the United States in 1959 and became a hot seller. Barbie\’s boyfriend â€˜Ken\’ was introduced in 1960. Ken was named after Ruth\’s son Kenneth.
The Barbie doll was first displayed at the New York International American Toy Fair on March 9, 1959. This date became Barbie\’s official birthday .There is now a fictional biography of the life of â€˜Barbie\’ with additional family and friends created and sold as separate dolls.
The first Barbie doll wore a black-and-white “zebra-striped” swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail with tightly-curled bangs. The dolls were available either as blonds or brunettes. In succeeding years, Barbie dolls were made available with other hair styles and colors. The doll was marketed as a “Teen-age Fashion Model”, so many fashions were available for her as well. Barbie’s wardrobe was designed by esteemed Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson, whose inspiration came from the fashion runways of Paris.
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Nasa’s Chandra x-ray observatory has 100 times the resolving power of previous X-ray scopes and will be able to view the fine details of exploding stars and clusters of hot gas. It’s improved resolution is possible in part because of its unusually high elliptical orbit which will take it a third of the way to the moon. The scope was built by TRW of Redondo Beach, California.
Chandra’s communication system relays data to astronomers on Earth and receives their directions for locating new targets. It will move more slowly than the minute hand on a clock when it turns in space. Constant temperature is necessary for the telescope to work as an observatory and this is provided by a special thermal system. The observatory measures the number, position and energy of incoming X-rays to create an X-ray image and to study the temperature and other properties of the source.
The telescope system consists of four pairs of barrel-shaped mirrors and their support structures. The super smooth mirrors are placed along the sides of the telescope, gradually focusing X-ray beams to a point. Chandra’s ability to distinguish objects is equal to reading a newspaper from half a mile away.
Chandra records the natural X-rays that are emitted by almost every object in the universe and differs from other scopes and observatories such as the Hubble Telescope which measures visible and some ultraviolet light or the Compton Gamma ray Observatory which views gamma rays.
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The tradition of the Christmas tree dates back to the middle ages and caught on in the United States in the 1800′s. Today, approximately 15,000 US growers tend one million acres of Christmas tree farmland.
The price for trees averages $5.65 per foot. Among some of top selling trees in the US are: Balsam fir, Douglas fir, Eastern white pine, Fraser fir, Noble fir, Scotch pine and Virginia pine. In 1996, 37 million Christmas trees were sold in the US alone.
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We in America use the Fahrenheit scale when talking about temperature. But in other countries around the world, they use Celsius. So, if you want to know how cold or hot it is elsewhere, you may have to resort to a little bit of mathematics.
To convert Fahrenheit degrees into Celsius, subtract 32, multiply by 5 and divide by 9.
To convert Celsius into Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, divide by 5, then add 32. No wonder we Americans never bothered to change over to Celsius!
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Everybody loves teddy bears. But do you know how it actually got its name? The original stuffed animal was created after President Theodore Roosevelt refused to shoot a black bear cub that he encounted during a hunting trip in 1902.
The cub was tied up and this bothered the President greatly because he said “the animal did not have a chance to defend itself.”
The teddy bear became a tribute to this president
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A Russian immigrant to America by the name of Vladimir Zworykin is credited with the invention of TV.
He moved to the US in 1919 and got a job at Westinghouse Electric Corp. in Pittsburgh. He first invented the iconoscope (an electronic camera) and a kinescope (picture tube).
In 1923, he unveiled the television, which at time showed a cloudy picture of boats on a river outside his lab. It did not impress his employers. But, in 1929, he obtained the first patent for color TV.
David Sarnoff who founded RCA asked Zworykin what it would take to develop TV for commercial use. Zworykin told him it could be done in a year and half at a cost of $100,000. Well, Sarnoff hired him but in the end, the cost and time were slightly greater: 20 years and $50-million.
Other Zworykin inventions include the electron microscope, electric eye infrared tubes and the first sniperscopes which were used in World War II. Zworykin died in 1982 at the age of 92 – delighted by what he had created in television yet appalled at the programming: “I would never let my children even come close to this thing.”
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We can look up in the sky and see the Moon change every night. The different ways the Moon looks through a month’s time are called phases of the Moon.
When the Moon is getting bigger, from the night when there is no Moon until the night of the full Moon, is called the Moon’s waxing cycle and includes these phases:
Â· New Moon is when the whole Moon is dark.
Â· Waxing crescent is when there is a light crescent that looks kind of like a fingernail on the right side of the Moon.
Â· First quarter is when the right half of the Moon is lit.
Â· Waxing gibbous is when three quarters of the Moon is lit.
Â· Full Moon is when the whole Moon is lit up.
When the Moon is in the waning cycle, it goes from being all lit up as the Full Moon to totally disappearing as a New Moon. The Moon does this in these phases:
Â· Waning crescent is when there is a dark crescent on the right side of the Moon.
Â· Third quarter is when the right half of the Moon is dark.
Â· Waning gibbous is when three quarters of the Moon is dark.
Â· New Moon is when the whole Moon is dark.
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WHAT ARE LASERS?
LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
A laser is a concentrated beam of light, created when an electric current passes through a special material.
The name and color of the laser depend on the type of special material that is used: Argon gas brings a blue-green light; Krypton gas brings red or yellow and YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) yields invisible infrared light
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The Africanized Honeybee is no more harmful than the common honeybee (whom they resemble) but they are highly aggressive. They become infuriated easily and will swarm on a perceived danger to deliver hundreds of stings.
Whereas the European bee will defend a territory of 350-450 yards, the Africanized version will defend its territory up to half a mile. They are considered good pollinators.
The European Honeybee is very good in producing honey and wax and can produce a painful sting that isn’t harmful unless you’re allergic.
Carpenter bees are the large shiny black ones that burrow into wood to nest. The female delivers a mild sting but is slow to anger.
Leaf Cutter Bees are ony a quarter to a half inch long and rather hairy. It trims small circular holes in leaves and carries the pupl back to its nest. It won’t attack but the female can sting, less painfully than the honeybee.
The Metallic Sweat Bee is just under a half inch long with bright green shiny bodies in which the males have striped abdomens. If pinched or swatted, the females can sting. These bees nest in the ground and are good pollinators.
The Bumblebee can produce a severe sting but is not easily provoked. The giant of the garden at one inch long, bumblebees nest in the ground and feed their young on pollen and honey.
They are good pollinators even though their loud buzz and size scare most people. They come in various of fuzzy yellow and black stripes
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